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MOUNTIAN PASSAGE
The Life Gallery

The Quest for Wildlife Go Down Go Back
Genesis 1: 1
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Third Day of Creation: Plant Kingdom. Genesis 1: 11-13
11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: 12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 13 And the evening and the morning were the third day."
Fifth Day of Creation: Fish, Birds. Genesis 1:20-21
20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. 21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. 23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
Sixth Day of Creation: Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians. Genesis 1: 24-25
24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
The above words, found in the first book of the Bible are the subject of this gallery and a subject near to the heart of the author.
Biology, the Study of Life
Biologists divide life into classifications, but the debate of how to divide and into what classifications has continued for three hundred years and still the biologists have not come to a consensus.
One thing is certain, the vastness of God′s creation is truly amazing.
Probably the division that makes the most sense to me is the one most recently proposed, the Seven Kingdoms model:
Animals, Archaea, Bacteria, Chromista, Fungi, Plants, and Protozoa.
The Subject of this Gallery
At this time, the subject of this gallery, which is call The Life Gallery or sometimes The Life Kingdoms, will just be the animals and as large a variety of animals and my photo lens happens to come upon. This gallery will begin with only vertebrate animals, those with a backbone.
However, at first, The Animal Kingdom Gallery will concentrate primarily on birds and mammals. Other life kingdoms may be included at at later time.
One other life kingdom I have interest in is the plant kingdom and as I begin to examine different types of plants, the Plant Kingdom Gallery will begin to show more and more plants.

The Animal Kingdom, A Wayƒarers Photo Gallery Go Down Go Up
The Animal Kingdom
(m3an-ar.20091215.1207) Monarch butterfly, Padre Island, Texas

The Archaea Kingdom Go Down Go Up
The Archaea
(m3ar.20090521) Archaea, Yellowstone, Wyoming
The first time I heard about this life was my last trip to Yellowstone park, where I was told that the multi color layers in hot springs were in fact different life forms.

The Bacteria Kingdom Go Down Go Up
Once considered a part of the plant kingdom, bacteria was the first organisms to be put into a separate kingdom called the Protista (in 1866). In 1938, the kingdom of Protista was divided into Monera and Protista.
The monera are single-celled organisms having no nuclear membrane (bacteria), and the protista are single-celled (or single-celled colonial) organisms which have a nuclear membrane (archaea), but do not have tissue.
Finally, in 2015 and after much dispute (often without consensus between biologist), the Kingdom of Monera was separated into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Archaea and the Kingdom of Bacteria.
The Bacteria
(m3ba.bacteria) Bacteria Photo Credit: Wikipedia commons
The Study of Bacteria is known as Bacteriology, a branch of Microbiology.
Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. They are also known to have flourished in manned spacecraft.
There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there are human cells in the body, most of which are found in the gut flora, and on the skin. Although some are beneficial, the vast majority of these are rendered harmless by the immune system. However, several species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people per year.
In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, and the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.

The Chromista Kingdom Go Down Go Up
The Chromista were originally part of the Kingdom of Protista, but in 1981, some biologist began to consider these organism as a separate kingdom and since 1993 the Kingdom of Chromista has been accepted by most biologists.
This group of organisms include all algae whose chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and c, as well as various colorless forms that are closely related to them. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts.
The difference that distinguishes chromists from plants is the location of where the chloroplasts are found. However, trying to understand the explanation of how the difference is determined is more than I can understand at this time.
The Chromista
(m3ch.chromista) Brown Algae Photo Credit: Wikipedia commons)
Brown Algae
Included in this kingdom is brown algae, commonly known as seaweed. These organisms have many plant like structures such as roots, stalks, and blades (leaves). It also has gas filled sacs called bladders which allow the algae to float.
Brown algae flourishes in cool, rocky water and can grow to over three hundred feet long. (100 meters)
Phyla include: Bigyra, Cercozoa, Ciliophora, Cryptophyta, Foraminifera, Haptophyta, Heliozoa, Myzozoa, Ochrophyta, Oomycota, and Radiozoa.

The Fungi Kingdom Go Down Go Up
The Kingdom Fungi is comprised with eukaryotic (complex cells with a nucleus and organelles) organisms. Most are multicellular, with the exception of single-celled yeast. Fungi are made up of individual feathery filaments called hyphae and are heterotrophic which means that they can not make their own food but live by decomposing and absorbing organic material from other organisms. This is done either by: (1) feeding off a live host (parasite) or (2) feeding on dead organic matter (saprotroph).
Fungi lack chlorophyll, true stems, and roots. Fungi reproduce by spores, have no vascular tissue and range in form from a single cell to a mass of branched filamentous hyphae that often produce specialized spore producing bodies, as in the case with mushrooms.
The Fungi Kingdom
(m3fu.20100107.1009) Morchella (morel), Michoacan, Mexico
Fungi includes: mildews, molds, mushrooms, smuts, rusts, and yeasts.
About 100,000 different species of fungi exist. Some fungi form a symbiotic relationship with algae, benefiting each other. These are known as lichen.
Phyla include: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthormycota, Glomeromycota, Microsporidia, Neocallimastigomycota, and Zygomycota.

The Plant Kingdom Go Down Go Up
On this earth, there are a vast variety of plants, upon which virtually all other living creatures depend in order to survive in at least two ways.
First, plants are consumed for food. Through photosynthesis, plants convert energy from sunlight into food stored as carbohydrates. It is because animals cannot get energy directly from the sun, that they must eat plants to survive, or, in the alternative eat other animals that have eaten plants.
Second, plants provide the oxygen humans and animals breathe, because plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and release oxygen into the atmosphere.
The Plant Kingdom
(m3pl.20130516.1040) Rain Forest, Olympic Peninsula, WA
Plants are found on land, in oceans, and in fresh water. There are three features that distinguish plants from animals: (1) plants have chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis; (2) their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose; and (3) they are fixed in one place (they don’t move).
The Kingdom of plants is divided into smaller and smaller divisions based on several characteristics, the first division is based on (1) whether they can circulate fluids (like rainwater) through their bodies or need to absorb them from the moisture that surrounds them; (2) how they reproduce, either by spores or by seeds; and (3) their size or stature.

The Protozoa Kingdom Go Down Go Up
Protozoa are a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single-celled organisms with animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation.
Protozoa are mainly microscopic organisms, ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers, although some are significantly larger. Free-living forms are restricted to moist environments, such as soils, mosses and aquatic habitats, although many form resting cysts which enable them to survive drying. Many protozoan species are symbiontic, some are parasites, and some are predators of bacteria, algae and other protists.
The Prootzoa
(m3pr.protozoa) Ciliated Protozoan (blepharisma japonicum) Photo Credit: Frank Fox
Phyla include: Amoebozoa, Choanozoa, Euglenozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada, Microsporidia, Percolozoa and Sulcozoa.

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by Thom Buras
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