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THE ANCIENTS
The First Wayfarers

The First Wayfarers Go Down Go Back
According to the highly educated men of this world, many of whom have spent their entire life researching the question: What causes ice ages? A glaciation period (or more commonly called: ice age) is an interval of time lasting thousands of years that is marked by colder temperatures and glacial advancement.
According to current scientific belief, the last glaciation period reached it′s peak about 21000 years ago (YA) during the Middle Pleistocene epoch, and ended about 11500 YA as the Holocene epoch was just beginning.
Further, they say that the period of time between glaciation periods, marked by warmer temperatures and glacial retreat, is called an interglacial period. The current interglacial, which is named the Holocene has persisted since the end of the Pleistocene glaciation.
During a glaciation, much of the water on earth is locked up in the glaciers that cover it, which in turn, lowers the level of the oceans by hundreds of feet. During the last glaciation, the oceans were at least four hundred feet lower than today.

The Ice Ages?
According to those who study the ice ages, these glaciation and interglacial periods are cyclic and have been occurring throughout the four and a half billion years that the earth has been in existence, representing thousands of ice ages amounting to a total of hundred of thousands of years of glaciation. Many of these so called experts believe that we are overdue for the next glaciation period to begin, a period of time lasting so very long, that it could decimate most all of mankind.
Is the earth, according tho the scientist, going to enter another Ice Age despite what the Bible informs us, that the righteous people will enter into a paradise? In fact, the Bible clearly tells us that we are at the conclusion of this system of things (end of the world) and those righteous ones are poised to enter into that paradise very soon despite what the worldly wise one believe. (Matthew 24:3; 13:40; 28:20; Luke 18:30)
Is what they state and claim as logical and empirical evidence, really true. 1

When did the Ice Age Really Begin?
Unknown of most scientist, the very first ice age that occurred on earth began about 4000 years ago just after the flood in Noah′s day, but more on that later. The reason scientist do not know about it, or if they do know about it, they will not acknowledge this understanding about the beginning of glaciation, is simply because they do not except the Bible and having any credibility, especially not when comparing it to all of their research and so called scientific evidence that has been discovered.
Firstly, scientist believe that man has been on this earth in his many forms for more than a million years, that he evolved from a lower form by means of a progression of advancements caused primarily from mutations, an amelioration that raised him from a unintelligent rudimentary life form to the intelligent, talking, reasoning creature that he is today. For any of these educated men to except that man was created would require that they change their university trained belief from one that is primary atheistic to become believers that there is in fact a God who is the cause of not only man but all of the creation.
Further, these wise worldly men would in fact, have need to accept that the Bible is the only source of the both logical and empirical evidence of truth.

What Does the Bible Say?
God′s creation of the earth is found in the first book of the Bible, the book of Genesis where it states in chapter one that after the heavens and earth were created, then light was brought forth to be separated from darkness. God called light Day and darkness Night and in doing so used Day to represent daylight hours in contrast to nighttime. 2
Then, in Geneses 1:6-7, 6 God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7 and God made the firmament and parted the waters below the firmament from the waters above the firmament, and it was so;
The word firmament in this verse is a transliteration of a term used in the Latin Vulgate, firmamentum and does not accurately translate the original Hebrew word raqiya, pronounced raw-kee′-ah, which is more accurately translated, expanse. Furthermpre, this Hebrew word could be translated into atmosphere or sky, something that is the place where the birds fly and clouds gather.
Therefore, this raqiya was between the waters beneath, (which are the oceans) and the waters above (which was a water canopy above the earth.)
Too, it was this very same water canopy above the earth, that God used at the Flood in 2370 BCE (Genesis 7:11-12) states: the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. 12 And the rain was upon the earth for 40 days and 40 nights.
Prior to the flood, which occurred nearly 4400 years ago, that canopy of water above the atmosphere of the earth provided a greenhouse like effect to prevail over the entire surface of the earth. At this time it did not rain, but the earth was watered by mist or dew that descended during the night. The Bible at Genesis 2:5-6 states, 5 And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. 6 But a mist would go up from the earth, and it watered the entire surface of the ground.
With this greenhouse put into place at the very beginning of the creation, that is, on the second day, there was no possibility that the earth could have a glaciation period forming on the northern pole, nor anywhere for that matter because the canopy of water that God put above the earth kept the climate of the entire earth suitable for life. Further, this initial climate was to be the paradise that that all the remaining creation soon to come would enjoy.
Next, on the third creative day, God said: "Let the earth cause grass to sprout, seed-bearing plants and fruit trees according to their kinds, yielding fruit along with seed on the earth." On the fourth, God said: "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years." On the fifth creative day, God created every living creature that moveth in the waters. (Genesis 1:1-23)
The sixth creative day was similar in that God created every living creature according to their kind to live on the ground. Then God said to his firstborn son: "Let us make man in our image, according to our likeness" and "God formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man came to be a living soul." (Genesis 1:25-31; 2:7) Thus, man was in the year 4026 BCE, nearly 6050 years ago.

No Ice Age Before the Flood
When God caused the water of the canopy to rain down upon the earth in the fall of 2370 BCE, the earth was flooded by those waters previously held in the firmament above the earth. Too this massive amount of water is what most likely caused the continental plates to completely shift from their original configuration. The weaker plates sunk under the massive weight of the water and became the ocean floors and some at great depths. Other plates rose to their current location above the surface of the water and afterwards, forces inside the earth cause great mountains to rise skyward.
So, it was about 4400 years ago, with the loss of the greenhouse effect, and with only the solar radiation from the sun to warm the earth, the areas closes to the sun were kept warm. However, at the areas furthest from the warming rays of the sun, particularly, the northern and southern polar regions, there was an immediate flash freezing in these regions and any precipitation that subsequently fell, caused ice to begin forming and building up there.
Countless discoveries have shown this to be what happened, discoveries of large animals that were living in places in the very north of the earth that were flash frozen, some that even had grass still between their teeth. These discoveries can only be explained by the catastrophic change that would have occurred when a water canopy fell to earth, a canopy such as what God created. Had it been anything like what the wise men of this earth believe, the freezing would have been very gradual, and the animals would not have been flash frozen, but could have had time to move further south, such as the snowbirds do now.
No, there were no ice ages before the flood, the Bible is clear on this matter. The next section discusses what happened here on the earth not long after the flood.

The Confusing of Language Go Down Go Up
God Confuses Man′s Language
The First Wayfarers
Migration
The Bible, at Genesis 11: 1-9, tells the story of an early time in the history of man on the earth, not long after the worldwide flood. As mentioned in the last section, that flood occurred during the fall of 2370 BCE. After the flood, God repeated the mandate for the men to migrate and fill the earth at Genesis 9:1 Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. Noah apparently did not go far before he settled quickly in an area called Lowilaan Mbisis (Genesis 9:20), but Japeth, Ham and Shem as well as their descendants did migrate to fulfill that mandate God gave them. (Gensis 10:1-32)
Next, the Bible relates how some of the rebellious sons of of man began to come together in a valley plain called Shinar and build a tower in direct opposition to the mandate God gave to their ancestor Noah for all of mankind to spread over the entire face of the earth and fill it. (Genesis 11:1-4)
It was here, in an area the Bible indicates is Babylonia, that God, in order to cause men to fulfill His mandate, choose to confused the language of man and in doing so, caused them to be scattered from there over the entire face of the earth. (Genesis 11:5-9)
The Ancients build a tower
in the valley plain called Shinar
(m1-20200825) Valley plain called Shinar where God confused man′s language.

The Command to Migrate Over the Entire Earth
The First Wayfarers
Command to Migration
God gave Noah and his sons the command to migrate across the entire surface of the earth and some, in obedience to that command began migrating. Japheth, the oldest son, (Genesis 10:21) and his family left from the Lowilaan Mbisis to migrate westward and formed settlements across the coast lands to the north and west. Thus, Japheth was the progenitor of the Aryan or Indo-European (Indo-Germanic) branch of the human family. The names of his sons and grandsons are found in ancient historical texts as relating to peoples and tribes residing mainly to the N and W of the Fertile Crescent
God gave men the command to migrate across the entire surface of the earth. Thus, after their language was confused, most of the men left off building the tower and walked away from the valley plain and out across the land.
Since that time, men have travel to the four corners of the earth. Some when east, others south and north and some traveled west to the great ocean.

The Migration Continues
The First Wayfarers
Migration Continues
When the men found it necessary to abandon a settlement for any reason, then they would continue the migration to a new location, seeking one which would provide them with the necessities of life: food, shelter, water, clothing, and work.
Often, before abandoning a settlement and resuming the migration in search of a new home, prayers were offered to the Creator to guide them so that they may find safe passage to a suitable location.

A New Settlement
The First Wayfarers
New Settlement
Old settlements were abandoned, new settlements were found and the families continued to multiply in fulfillment of the original mandate from the Creator. As these successive families continued to migrate and explore, the entire western hemisphere was filled with inhabitants.
The most amazing thing about this migration and settlement is that it all happened long before any European travelers took steps upon this continent.

The Stone Tools Go Down Go Up
Methinks the reason this time period has been called the Stone Age is because the archaic people used stone tools, particularly spear points (called projectile points) scrapers and carving tools (called burins). Too, these tools are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity on this continent. Projectile points have been discovered which are from four to nine inches in length with the oldest of such projectile points having been found in Clovis, New Mexico.
These were the preferred tools of the early wayfaring people as they were easily made, extremely sharp, and easily repaired. Damaged projectile points could be used as scrapers, burins or other useful devices.
These tools are flaked tools, made by chipping or flaking off small particles from a stone.
  The First Wayfarers
Projectile Points
The method of creating these stone tools was by lithic reduction, a process of using a hammer stone to detach lithic flakes from the core stone. By sequential reduction of the flakes from a stone the preferred shape as seen above is achieved.
Stone chosen to create flaked tools were a type of cryptocrystalline rock which gives conchoidal fractures. The stone of choice was flint but other stones includes chert, chalcedony, obsidian, and occasionally stones such as felsite, jasper, quart, quartzite and rhyolite. Flintknapping was an art of the archaic people, an art that has persisted and continues to be used even in this modern day.
In lithic stone tools, conchoidal fractures are the basis of flint knapping since the shape of the final surface is caused by the controlled stresses applied, not by some preferred orientation of the material.
Since the conchoidal fractures may only be produced by mechanical impact and not by natural means (such as frost cracking), this provides a method of differentiating archaic stone tools from natural stones.
Found throughout the eastern hemisphere, and believed to have been brought across Beringia, the archaic people of this hemisphere had another tool, one proving most beneficial and known as the atlatl or spear-thrower. The atlatl (pronounced: at-l-at-l) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in spear-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store and apply energy during the throw.
An atlatl is capable of projecting spears at up to one hundred miles per hour. Atlatl designs may include improvements such as thong loops to fit the fingers, the use of flexible shafts, stone balance weights, and thinner, highly flexible darts for added power and range.
Prevalent across the western hemisphere are the use of the above tools, as all cultures and groups used both the projectile points and the atlatl.
The Archaic People
The Atlatl
Spear-throwers of varying types appear very early in human history in many parts of the world, and spear-throwing has survived in use in traditional societies until the present day, as well as being revived in recent years for sporting purposes.
The modern day tennis ball throwers used to play fetch with your dog is a variation of an atlatl.

1  
The Bible, at 1 Corinthians 1:19 tells us: For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.)
2  
The word for day, (Hebrew: yohm, Greek: hemera) is used in the Bible as a literal, figurative and symbolic sense. Throughout the Bible, Day refers to different periods: sometimes only the daylight time such as in the creation account; sometimes to the reference to a solar day, or one rotation of the planet on its axis; at other times, it is only the daylight period (Genesis 1:5; 8:22); sometimes in prophecy, a day represents one year (Ezekiel 4:6, Numbers 14:34); at times, the term day(s) is used to reference a time period of a certain person (Luke 17:26-30; Isaiah 1:1); at other times in the Bible the word day is used in a figurative sense, expressed in units of time of varying length such as the day of fury (Zephaniah 1:15) or the day of salvation (2 Corinthians 6:2), or the great day of God the Almighty (Revelation 16:14); and finally, the creative day is clearly evident to be a figurative expression of the word day as in each of the six creative days in Genesis concluded with And the evening and the morning were... the first day, the second day, through to the sixth day. The seventh day, however, does not have the same ending because God has not rested from his creative works on the earth. In fact, at Hebrews 4:1-10, Paul is inspired to inform us that the seventh day was continuing even then, more than 4000 years after the seventh day began. Thus, day in the Bible clearly is not only twenty-four hours in length but can even be thousand of years long.

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